By Edited by Ian Flood , Raja R . A . Issa , and William J . O’Brien

ISBN-10: 9058093549

ISBN-13: 9789058093547

The development firm is being remodeled by way of visible modelling. instruments reminiscent of 3D/4D CAD and digital fact are actually in common use in development. This ebook is either a survey of the adjustments being made in perform and a close consultant to destiny instructions for learn and improvement. This e-book encompasses a variety of distinctive case stories and examples, making it an outstanding source for practitioners, researchers, and scholars trying to comprehend the main points of the way new instruments and techniques are utilized in a company context.

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Third, and most importantly, the students demonstrated that time, embedded in the construction of this model, was not in its final representation as the completed model, but in the interaction and communications that occurred during the modeling process. Like any building, “time,” as a function of the “mass” of the building, was thereby embodied in the components of the building as the energy expended in the virtual materials and labor. In other words, the pieces of the model constructed by these students contained the “process” from which it emerged.

Statistics: Number of 3D components: 180; Number of polygons: 520,000; Number of activities: to be determined. qxd 16/Nov/02 24 10:00 AM Page 24 M. Fischer et al. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED WHILE BUILDING THE 4D MODELS The construction of the models posed a number of challenges related to the geometry, the schedule, and the linking of the geometry and the schedule. In our experience, such issues are quite common during the development of 4D models, especially when the 3D models are created without knowledge of the needs for 4D modeling and construction planning.

Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida, several students constructed a building by dividing themselves into subcontracts (Fukai, 1996a). The students used ACAD R14 and had just completed about 20 hours of exercises in which they learned how to build solid models of concrete blocks, steel extrusions, concrete, and window assemblies. Using a common work point and “chalklines” to guide their assembles they were able to build the model shown in Figure 10. Perhaps not surprisingly for construction students, they began the work by breaking the building into its primary subcontracts: concrete and rebar, steel frame, masonry cladding, interior framing and finishes, and mechanical and electrical systems.

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4D CAD and visualization in construction: developments and applications by Edited by Ian Flood , Raja R . A . Issa , and William J . O’Brien

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