By Michael L. Anderson
The desktop analogy of the brain has been as largely followed in modern cognitive neuroscience as used to be the analogy of the mind as a set of organs in phrenology. simply because the phrenologist may insist that every organ needs to have its specific functionality, so modern cognitive neuroscience is devoted to the proposal that every mind quarter should have its primary computation. In After Phrenology, Michael Anderson argues that to accomplish a completely post-phrenological technology of the mind, we have to re-examine this dedication and devise an alternative, neuroscientifically grounded taxonomy of psychological functionality.
Anderson contends that the cognitive roles performed by means of each one area of the mind are hugely quite a few, reflecting diversified neural partnerships demonstrated less than varied situations. He proposes quantifying the practical houses of neural assemblies when it comes to their dispositional developments quite than their computational or information-processing operations. Exploring larger-scale concerns, and drawing on proof from embodied cognition, Anderson develops an image of considering rooted within the exploitation and extension of our early-evolving capability for iterated interplay with the realm. He argues that the multidimensional method of the mind he describes bargains an improved healthy for those findings, and a extra promising highway towards a unified technology of minded organisms.
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Extra resources for After phrenology : neural reuse and the interactive brain
1993), the use of gesturing in learning (Goldin-Meadow 2003), and the use of a common brain region for both finger and magnitude representation (Anderson & Penner-Wilger 2013; Penner-Wilger & Anderson 2008; Zago et al. 2001) can all be explained by positing that both later and earlier use share some functional requirements, such that one or more of the brain regions underlying Neural Reuse in Brain Function 29 the earlier use can also be of service in supporting the later use. Similarly, one does not need to posit any inheritance of semantic structure from one domain to another to explain the finding that finger differentiation exercises improve math performance (Gracia-Bafalluy & Noël, 2008).
1995, 1996; Martin, Ungerleider, & Haxby 2000; Pulvermüller 2005; see Schiller 1996 for a related discussion). Excitement over the discovery of the fusiform face area (Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun 1997) was quickly tempered when it was discovered that the area also responded to cars, birds, and other stimuli (Gauthier et al. 2000; Grill-Spector, Sayres, & Ress 2006; Hanson & Schmidt 2011; Rhodes et al. 2004). The ensuing debates over the “real” function of these areas have still not been resolved, and in light of these results researchers have started to question the boundaries between psychological domains once thought separate and distinct, such as perception and cognition (Anderson, Richardson, & Chemero 2012; Barsalou 1999, 2008) and cognition and emotion (Pessoa 2008, 2012).
Let me be clear, however, about what it is I do not take the evidence to have established. I was an early proponent of ECS (O’Donovan-Anderson 1996, 1997), continue to be a staunch advocate (Anderson 2003, 2008b, 2009; Anderson & Rosenberg 2008; Anderson et al. 2012), and do not think that any of the arguments made in this chapter falsify any of the claims made on its behalf. Quite the contrary! As I have already indicated, I think that neural reuse follows naturally from, and coheres perfectly with, the general expectations of ECS.
After phrenology : neural reuse and the interactive brain by Michael L. Anderson